Was rape common in the Middle Ages?

December 14, 2017 - 06:20

TV shows such as "Game of Thrones" on HBO and "Norsemen" depict rape as having been commonplace in the past. But is that correct?

The television series "Game of Thrones" had shown at least 50 rapes and attempted rapes by 2015, according to a blogger who tallied them up. But that’s nothing compared to the books that the TV series is based on, “A Song of Ice and Fire,” which depicts about 200 rapes and attempted rapes in the first five books. (Photo: HBO screenshot)

Blame the Italians: During the 1400s and the bloom of the Renaissance in Italy, people created the perception that the Middle Ages was a dark period in history.

They used the name the Middle Ages to describe the long period between golden antiquity that ended with the fall of Rome around the year 500 and their own Renaissance (which literally means rebirth).

Today, we are still telling the same stories that they told of a dark period of a thousand years.

Part of this dark image of the Middle Ages is the idea that it was full of sexual abuse.

Tracking rape in the Middle Ages

"If we look at Scandinavia, there is no evidence that rape was more common in the Middle Ages than in the two centuries that followed," or the 1500s and 1600s, says Fredrik Charpentier Ljungqvist. Ljungqvist is a historian at Stockholm University and has conducted two separate studies of the Middle Ages.

Hans Jacob Orning is an expert in the Middle Ages from the University of Oslo. He points out that researchers would have found far more evidence of rape in the extensive literature we have from the Middle Ages, if it had been common at that time.

“The culture of the Vikings and the Middle Ages was a culture of honour,” he said. "Women were an integral part of this culture. Raping a woman would not only have been an assault against her, but also against the community around her.”

Indeed, rapists were subject to the strictest possible punishment under the law of the time. Rapists were wanted criminals.

“If you had raped a woman, anyone could kill you without risking punishment themselves,” Orning says.

Over 50 sexual assaults

“Game of Thrones” is an American television series based on the books "A Song of Ice and Fire" by the author George R.R. Martin.

The first season was shown in 2011, and when the fifth season ended in 2015, most of the lead female characters, including Sansa, Cersei Lannister, Daenerys Targaryen, Meera Reed, Gilly, and 24 other women had either been raped or subjected to an attempted rape.

Of course, “Game of Thrones” is a fantasy. But the author of the books on which the series is based, George R.R. Martin, has clearly said he was inspired by what he believes must have been a very brutal medieval period.

A blogger who calls herself “Tafkar” follows the series and tallied the number of rapes and attempted rapes she saw in the series. She counted just over 50 by 2015. She also notes, however, that in Martin’s first five books, there are over 200 portrayals of rape and attempted rape.

"Norsemen", which is being shown in the US on Netflix and on NRK in Norway as “Vikingane”, is a comedy. But here the humour repeatedly plays off the idea that sexual abuse must have been very common in medieval Norwegian Viking communities.

Based on history

George R.R. Martin has been criticized for all the rapes he uses as literary devices in his books.

One of the very few known depictions of what might have been rape committed by Vikings, as described by an Arab, Ibn Fadland. In 921, a mission from the Caliphate in Baghdad visited a kingdom on the Volga River in Russia today, and witnessed a funeral where a slave woman volunteered to be the victim after having been used sexually by several men. The Polish painter Henryk Siemiradzki was inspired in 1883 by Ibn Fadlan's story and painted this image.

He has also been criticized for using sexual assault almost exclusively to develop his male characters. The women are merely victims. In an interview, The New York Times asked Martin why he includes so many rapes and other acts of sexual violence in his books.

Martin answered that he was depicting reality, and that this was what it was like in the Middle Ages.

“An artist has an obligation to tell the truth. My novels are epic fantasy, but they are inspired by and grounded in history,” he told the Times. “To omit them from a narrative centered on war and power would have been fundamentally false and dishonest, and would have undermined one of the themes of the books: that the true horrors of human history derive not from orcs and Dark Lords, but from ourselves. We are the monsters.”

Unlikely to have been common

Stockholm University’s Ljungqvist says that rape was such an extremely serious crime in the Middle Ages that there is little evidence that it was common.

"We also have to remember that the Catholic Church had a strong grip on the Nordic region during most of the Middle Ages. The Church considered all extramarital activity as something criminal,” he said.

Ljungqvist has also searched for reports of sexual assault in the Icelandic saga literature. The Icelandic Sagas also offer a window on conditions in Norway at that time. They are often about people during the Middle Ages and the relationships between them.

"Sexual assault rarely occurs in the Icelandic Sagas,” he said. “When it does, it is usually in the context of feuds and warfare. Sexual assault was committed against enemy women as a part of warfare, to dishonour other men.”


Fredrik Charpentier Ljungqvist: “Rape in the Icelandic Sagas: An Insight in the Perceptions about Sexual Assaults on Women in the Old Norse World”, Journal of Family History, 2015. Summary

Hans Jacob Orning: “Feuds and conflict resolution in fact and fiction in late medieval Iceland”, in Steinar Imsen (ed.): “Legislation and State Formation. Norway and its neighbours in the Middle Ages”, Akademika forlag, 2013

Blog post: “Rape in ASOIAF vs. Game of Thrones: a statistical analysis” and “A Song of Ice and Fire has a rape problem”.

The New York Times: “George R.R. Martin on ‘Game of Thrones’ and Sexual Violence”, May 2014. Interview


Read the Norwegian version of this article at forskning.no