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Chemistry

How to build the perfect sandcastle

Scientists have come up with a formula that makes it possible to build spectacular sandcastles.

Dyed clothes came into fashion in early Iron Age

Analyses of bog bodies show that dyed clothing became fashionable in the early Iron Age – centuries before previously thought.

Colour secrets revealed in fossilised fish-eye

A Swedish palaeontologist and Danish researchers have now proved that prehistoric fossils still have traces of colouring from the animal’s skin, hair or feathers.

Lack of oxygen led to first mass extinction

The first mass extinction of animal life on Earth was previously blamed on a rise in the oxygen concentration in the oceans as a result of a cooler climate. But a new study shows the catastrophe was really caused by a massive decrease in oxygen.

Air pollution hospitalises small children

Rising numbers of small children are hospitalised with asthma when air pollution increases, new study shows. One surprising finding is that ultra-fine particles from road traffic play only a little role.

The body's beautiful jewels

They look like beautiful precious stones. In a crystallised form, proteins can provide invaluable contributions to cancer research and vaccine development.

The chemistry of cake baking

Most cakes contain eggs, milk, flour and sugar. Now there’s a way to make them without one or more of these ingredients.

Harmful bacteria invade the groundwater

New research reveals that bacteria in farm slurry seep down to the groundwater before they can be broken down in the subsoil.

The Earth has lost a quarter of its water

In its early history, the Earth's oceans contained significantly more water than they do today. A new study indicates that hydrogen from split water molecules has escaped into space.

Everyday chemicals impair effects of vaccines

High concentrations of so-called PFCs in children’s blood reduce the effect of vaccines, a new Faroese/Danish study shows.